If redistributive programs do not discourage work, then guaranteed income paired with high phaseout rates optimizes social welfare functions
UBI and NIT can have identical redistributive effects.
Higher welfare universalism is positively correlated with redistribution, poverty reduction, and social expenditures, while negatively correlated with inequality levels.
Taxing rising land values allows for the redistribution of landlord's unearned gains arising from city growth.
A one unit increase in universalism is associated with a 4.8 point increase in redistribution.
Citizens living in countries with higher levels of universalism tend to maintain stronger support for government redistribution.
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Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth
The Case for Welfare State Universalism
An Introduction to Two-Rate Taxation of Land and Buildings
The Relative Costs of a UBI and a NIT
Optimal Income Transfer Programs: Intensive Versus Extensive Labor Supply Responses
Charalambos G. Tsangarides
Jonathan D. Ostry
Keith A. Bender
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Land Value Tax