"Coefficients in Model 1 show that a one-unit increase in universalism is associated with a 4.8 point increase in redistribution, which is roughly the difference in redistribution between the United States and Canada in the mid-2000s. In fact, going from the lowest level of universalism to the highest is associated with a 17.45 points increase in redistribution.10 Seventeen points in redistribution is equivalent to the difference between the redistributive effect of the Norwegian and the US welfare states. A one-unit increase in universalism is also associated with a larger redistributive budget, increasing public social expenditures as a proportion of GDP by 2.8 percentage points. Similarly, strong effects across countries exist for poverty reduction and inequality levels."

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