A 2021 survey of codetermination studies finds that the existing empirical evidence "points to nonexistent or very small positive effects of codetermination on key proxies for worker welfare, including wages, rent-sharing, voluntary and involuntary separations, health, and subjective job quality."

“Our overall conclusion in this section is that the existing empirical evidence points to nonexistent or very small positive effects of codetermination on key proxies for worker welfare, including wages, rent-sharing, voluntary and involuntary separations, health, and subjective job quality.”

empirical