There is little precedent for how codetermination might be implemented in the US, since European models rely on the near-universal presence and legitimacy of union representatives, a feature lacking in the US.

“Overall, much of the practical infrastructure of codetermination in European countries relies on the near-universal presence and widespread legitimacy of union representatives. There is therefore little precedent for how codetermination might be implemented in the United States, where many workplaces either lack union representatives entirely, or lack union representatives who hold the confidence of workers.”

practical