Recipients of basic income in Kenya increased their spending relative to control groups by 13.5%.

"As expected, recipient households report significantly higher total expenditure: USD PPP 293 more expenditure than eligible households in control villages (Table 1, column 1), an 11.5% increase over the control village in low saturation area mean of USD PPP 2,537. The estimated total treatment effect, including spatial effects, is larger at USD PPP 343, a 13.5% increase (column 2). This pattern between columns 1 and 2 is a first piece of evidence for the existence of localized, positive cross-village spillovers which we will see repeated across other outcomes."

empirical