In the USA, the 1970's reforms to the welfare system that introduced targeted cash transfer programs conditional on work were associated with higher infant mortality rates.

"Results from targeted, conditional cash transfer programmes suggested that, in the USA, those that were accompanied by work conditions generally did not yield positive effects. Reforms to the US welfare system were associated with an increase in infant mortality rate for children of foreign-born Mexican women of 3.1 deaths per 1000 live births (SE: 0.001), from a baseline rate of 4.23–6.22 deaths per 1000 live births depending on the state. In a more socioeconomically restricted sample, welfare reform was associated with an increase of 5.9 deaths per 1000 live births (SE: 0.002). Studies on EITC were divided. Two studies found positive effects. In one, US$1000 of EITC was associated with a 2%–3% decline in low birth weight and an increase of 6.4 g in mean birth weight. Preterm birth, small for gestational age and Apgar score were also improved. In another study, EITC was associated with an average increase in birth weight of 15.70 g(SE: 1.211) among unmarried women with high school education or less. Two other studies found no significant effects of EITC."

empirical