Codetermination laws have been passed in countries with already existing pro-worker institutions, such as centralized collective bargaining systems, high union coverage, and extensive labor market regulations. Thus, the low hanging fruit of codetermination's potential impact may already be plucked.
"Third, codetermination laws coexist with other important pro-worker institutions whose influence may leave little room for codetermination to have an impact. European countries with codetermination laws tend to also have centralized collective bargaining systems, high rates of union representation, and extensive labor market regulations. These institutions may already capture most of the low-hanging fruit when it comes to affecting worker outcomes, leaving limited scope for codetermination to further shape outcomes."