“…codetermination is not a standalone institution. Rather, it is part of a broader institutional and cultural package whose other elements complement codetermination and supply its practical infrastructure. The recent American policy discourse has seen several proposals to introduce other elements of the European package, including stronger union representation and sectoral collective bargaining.”

Codetermination in Europe relies on related labor institutions, like widespread union representation and collective bargaining. These elements are crucial not only in understandings its impacts (or lack thereof), but the logistics of how it works. Strengthening these institutions in the U.S. may play an important role in a well-implemented codetermination policy.