Cash transfers increased economic activity (proxy for GDP at scale) in Kenya (via multiplier effects of 2.46 on expenditures and 2.73 on income).

Fiscal multipliers measure the effect that increases in government spending have on a nation's economic output. A multiplier of 1 implies every additional dollar spent yields an additional dollar of output. A multiplier of 2 means every dollar spent yields 2 dollars more in output. Higher multipliers indicate more effective spending.

empirical