"When payment is conditional on work or narrowly targeted, basic income will increase workers’ market dependence and facilitate exploitation, but when it is generous, broadly available, and crucially, delinked from work, it will obstruct exploitation."”

Interpreting results from the Manitoba basic income experiments in the 1970's, the author finds that contrary to concerns that universal payments act as a subsidy for low-wages, where payments were universal and generous, wages increased.