Universal welfare programs "blur the lines" between beneficiaries and contributors, creating a beneficial mirage of solidarity.

"Although generous social provision clearly increases the total tax burden on the middle classes and involves significant cross-class redistribution, it may be difficult in practice for middle-class families to determine whether they are net beneficiaries or net contributors to the welfare state. By blurring the lines between beneficiaries and contributors, the universal welfare state reduces the appearance of redistribution and shifts the focus of political debates away from zero-sum class conflicts toward a discourse of common solutions to common problems."