Total factor productivity declined from 1975 - 1983 in large German codetermined firms.

"Finally, we report the alternative approach of directly estimating total factor productivity (TFP) growth in Table 5. Again there was a negative size effect and a highly significant negative COD effect. This result was robust, in that many alternative specifications of a productivity-growth equation were estimated, all yielding similar results and all consistent with comparison of the two cross sections."

empirical