Findings are generally positive that UBI-type programs alleviate poverty and improve health and education outcomes and that the effects on labor market participation are minimal.

“There are a variety of other outcomes that have been pursued by researchers but where evidence is less certain. More research is needed on outcomes such as stigma and social cohesion to clarify the imperative to provide transfers universally. Our review surfaced that impacts of UBI-type programs are not uniform across all groups. Sub-group analysis that more comprehensively examines how intersectional factors—such as gender, race and age—modify intervention impacts could elucidate for whom UBI matters and why. It is evident from the social inequalities’ literature that income differences between groups matter for many of the outcomes that a UBI is intended to improve. Without careful attention to uneven impacts, interventions risk leaving existing inequalities untouched, or even exacerbating them, rather than ameliorating the issue. Further research is required to identify how different policy designs address not only absolute changes in outcomes among recipients, but also relative gaps based on income levels.”